The invention and development of the printing press played an important role in the spread of human civilization and culture.
In 1439, Gutenberg, Germany, produced the wooden letterpress, a vertical screw press with a simple structure that had been used for 300 years.In 1812, Germany's koenig produced the first rotary press.In 1847, hoy invented the rotary press in the United States;In 1900, a six-colour rotary press was made.In 1904, American rubell invented the offset press.
Before the 1950s, the traditional letterpress process dominated the printing industry, and the development of the printing press was dominated by the letterpress press.However, the process of letterpress printing of lead alloy has the disadvantages of high labor intensity, long production cycle and environmental pollution.Since the 1960s, lithographic offset printing technology with the characteristics of short cycle and high productivity began to rise and develop, and letterpress printing with lead alloy was gradually replaced by lithographic offset printing.Soft relief printing, hole printing, electrostatic printing, inkjet printing, etc., in packaging printing, advertising printing has also been developed.
The world printing machinery has made great progress since 1980s.Over the past 20 years, the development of printing machinery has gone through three stages:
The first stage was from the early 1980s to the early 1990s, which was the heyday of offset printing technology development.A four-colour printing press usually takes about two hours to prepare for pre-adjustment.The automatic control of printing machine mainly focuses on automatic paper feeding, automatic paper receiving, automatic cleaning, automatic detection of ink color, automatic adjustment of ink volume and remote registration.In this period, in addition to monochrome, two-color machine, almost every sheet-fed offset press manufacturers also have a four-color machine manufacturing capacity, most manufacturers are able to produce paper turnover mechanism, double-sided printing.
The second stage was from the early 1990s to the end of the 20th century.In the 1990s, with the sheet-fed offset press as the symbol, the international printing machinery design and manufacturing level has made a big step forward.Compared with the model in the first stage, the speed of the new generation model is further improved, from 10000 printing/hour to 15000 printing/hour, and the pre-adjustment time is greatly reduced from about 2 hours in the first stage to about 15 minutes.The level of automation of the machine and production efficiency are also greatly improved.
Since entering the 21st century, printing machinery ushered in the third stage of development.Sheet-fed offset presses can produce between 17,000 and 18,000 impressions per hour on some models, but manufacturers are not striving for maximum printing speeds. Instead, information technology is being used to further reduce prepress preparation time and time for changing live parts in pursuit of higher productivity.
In the aspect of printing machinery automation, network, production integration, digital workflow, link with management information system (MIS) and other technologies have become the focus of development.Heidelberg CP2000 of automatic control system in addition to whole machine from paper, paper and paper, ink, water, changing edition, alignment, cleaning, drying, glazing coating, powder spraying, and paper and so on each work link to preset control and fault diagnosis, also has the realization of on-line printing enterprise all production processes, online prepress image processing data (CIP3 / or CIP4 PPF/JDF data), and other functions.In the new century, most offset printing press manufacturers have developed corresponding DI digital printing presses.
In addition, in order to adapt to the demand for high-end color printing, color group 10 color even multicolor group of double-sided printing, additional online post-press processing function for all kinds of sheet-fed offset press (including small offset press, DI direct plate maker and large offset press) development trend, and the technology mature gradually, the type printing machine has started to use originally belong to part of a web press market.